Cutting edge technology in the Cold War paved the way for present day space supremacy, Nuclear weapons, biological weapons and of course, espionage.
In the Cold War, the Soviet Union was determined to outdo America and its capitalists. Russia went ahead with space technology by sending Yuri Gagarin into space. Nikita Khrushchev was catching up and overtaking the West. Investment in defence equipment was also on the rise in both countries.
When the Sputnik mission was successful, the US invested heavily into aeronautics research and electronics. A sort of cultural Cold War was born in Europe. The US moved away from military hardware to everyday technologies, consumer goods, and the modern conveniences. Russia had a lot of prefabricated houses from America for the first time.
Western capitalism regarding innovation and consumption caught up the attention of Russia. Nuclear arms and space exploration had already placed science and technology at the center of the Cold War. The nuclear family concept encouraged the socio-economic growth on both sides.
During the post-war period, private enterprises, competition, global capitalist trade, and vigorously targeting the desires and behavior of consumers became prominent issues. Russia adopted western manufacturing system but in a more militaristic way. Russia wanted to be number one. But both sides, however, oﬀered a road to high modernity through education, science, and technological progress.
Both capitalism and socialism, it was largely the state that enabled research and innovation and created institutions to educate and train new professional elites. Russia saw science and technology as a vehicle for radically restructuring society. It was doing well with technology. The civil and military industrial sectors in the Soviet Union remained on top of the agenda.